How can I best parent my ADHD child?

Yes, ADHD is complicated, and it can be difficult to manage. As a parent, it can be frustrating, annoying, irritating, and worrisome. It can also be inspiring, playful, creative, curious, and incredibly rewarding! The truth is an ADHD child or teen only needs a few key essentials from their parents. It’s not about charts, or reward systems, or even about consistency. What kids with ADHD need most is a parent who understands them, accepts and respects them, believes in their strengths and possibilities, and empowers them to want to reach their full potential.

“How?” you might ask.

infographic parenting adhd child

First, if you are a parent with ADHD yourself, your child needs you to consciously manage your own ADHD. Whether you choose to treat it with medication, meditation, exercise, nutrition, coaching, or all of the above — get support for yourself and model that for your child.

Next, create a home environment that makes it okay to make mistakes. Don’t try to avoid them at all costs, because mistakes are going to happen especially in ADHD-land. So normalize that, and practice learning from them without judgment and shame.

Finally, take a marathon view. If you try to tackle everything at once it’s likely to make everyone feel a little crazy. Think in terms of fostering independence a little bit at a time and stay focused on the process and incremental change.

Above all, lean into your relationships, love your kids for who they are, and don’t let the world’s expectations prevent you from meeting your kids exactly where they are so you can guide them to grow with love.

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About the Author

Elaine Taylor-Klaus

Author, parent educator, certified coach, Elaine Taylor-Klaus co-founded ImpactADHD®, now ImpactParents.com. Download bonus content for her new book, The Essential Guide to Raising Complex Kids with ADHD, Anxiety and More, at ImpactParents.com/Guide

Why does ADHD seem to run in families?

Part of the reason why ADHD runs in families is down to genetics: ADHD has a high heritability of around 70-80%. What this means is that in an average person with ADHD, 70-80% of the inattention and/or hyperactivity can be explained by contributions of variants in genes. Those variants in genes are not only present in people with ADHD – every person has a few, and each of those variants is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause ADHD. However, the more of those variants a person has, the higher their risk to develop ADHD. The average person with ADHD probably has tens to hundreds of those gene variants in their genetic make-up.

infographic adhd in families

The genetic make-up of a person is determined by the combination of genetic material (i.e. DNA) of their father and mother during conception. The more ADHD-related genetic variants father and mother have in their DNA, the more likely they are to pass some of them on to their children. As indicated above, the number of such variants will be particularly high in those parents that have ADHD themselves. Thus, those with ADHD are likely to have a high-risk genetic make-up and pass it down to their children.

While the genetic make-up provides a good explanation for the observation that ADHD runs in families, there are probably also other factors contributing, some of which may even be family-specific.

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About the Author

Barbara Frank

Barbara Franke is a Professor of Molecular Psychiatry at the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She studies the genetic factors involved in psychiatric disorders, especially ADHD, and investigates the biological pathways that lead from variants in genes to alterations in the brain and to symptoms.


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What is ADHD coaching?

Life with ADHD can become overwhelming. So many of us with ADHD struggle with the daily tasks of being a grown-up:  paying the bills, reading essential emails, making necessary phone calls, etc. An ADHD coach can help you improve your life and overcome these feelings and get stuff done.

infographic adhd coaching

Research shows that ADHD coaching can improve ADHD symptoms, executive functioning related behaviors, self-esteem, well-being, and quality of life. Coaches who specialize in working with clients who have ADHD will often educate their clients about ADHD and how it affects them across a lifetime. Building on that awareness, coaches support their clients in creating systems and strategies that help their clients manage the practical aspects of life.

ADHD coaches encourage you to stay focused on your goals, develop resilience when you face obstacles, and to feel better about the way you engage your life. They are specifically trained and certified to help individuals with ADHD better manage their lives more effectively.

To find a coach, visit ADHD Coaches Organization’s Find-a-Coach https://www.adhdcoaches.org/find-your-coachMany ADHD coaches work virtually, on Zoom, Skype, or other platforms. The price of coaching varies depending on where you live and who you hire. While ADHD coaching is not covered by insurance, some experts may offer a sliding-scale payment plan.

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Tamara Rosier

Tamara Rosier, PHD is the founder of the ADHD Center of West Michigan. She leads a team of professionals to provide outstanding resources for individuals and their families after they receive a diagnosis of ADHD. In her coaching, she helps her clients understand their thinking processes in order to develop more confidence, smoother communication, closer relationships, and increased academic or work success. She is a board-certified coach (BCC) and is the president of national association, ADHD Coaches Organization (ACO).


Further Reading

If my child has extra time and other accommodations at school, isn’t that cheating?

If a child is blind, no one considers it cheating to provide them with materials in Braille. If a child is hearing impaired, no one would consider it cheating to provide them with access to learning through signing. The question itself then implies the assumption that ADHD is not a disability. Unlike blindness or deafness, attention deficits that impact learning are invisible to those who choose not to recognize them.

Infographic adhd school accomodations

Recognition of attention problems as a disability allows us to make specific and evidence based accommodations specific to that child’s impairments. Note that this does not mean there is one IEP that fits all children with ADHD.

A child with a specific problem with processing speed should be given the time needed to show what they know and have their academic achievement measured by what they can do, and not by the limitations imposed by processing delay.

A child with dysgraphia should be given the opportunity to learn to keyboard, dictate, or have a scribe.  

A child who cannot organize should be given the opportunity to have extra books at home, or flexibility with turning in assignments.

A child who cannot work in the evening off stimulant medication, should be given the opportunity to complete work in the classroom, under supervision, and on medication.

All accommodations are “fair” when they allow a child to show that they have been able to learn as another child who does not struggle with the same challenge. 504 or IEP plans that provide a blanket set of core recommendations for all children with ADHD, without attention to their specific difficulties, are unlikely to be helpful. By the same token, however, neither do they provide any advantage.  If a child, any child, does much better at showing what they know when given extra time, the problem is in the test, not the accommodation. 


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About the Author

Margaret Weiss

Margaret D. Weiss, MD, PhD, FRCP(C), is currently the Director of Clinical Research in Child Psychiatry at Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge MA. She has specialized in diagnosis, treatment and research in ADHD and other neurodevelopmental disorders in all age groups. She received her MD and Fellowship in Psychiatry from McGill University and her PhD in the History of Science from Harvard University. Dr. Weiss has published over 125 peer-reviewed articles relating to these topics. She is the author of two book chapters on ADHD and coauthored the book ADHD in Adulthood: A Guide to Current Theory, Diagnosis, and Treatment, which is currently under revision. Dr. Weiss is known for her research demonstrating that melatonin is a safe and effective treatment for initial insomnia in ADHD. She is the author of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, a widely used measure translated into thirteen languages. She has lectured in more than twenty-one countries. She was the Director of the ADHD Program at Children’s and Women’s Health Centre in British Columbia for 15 years and then was the Director of the Division of Child Psychiatry at University of Arkansas Medical Sciences. She is on the advisory council of the Canadian Attention Deficit Disorder Resource Alliance, and the board of the American Professional Association for ADHD and Related Disorders.


References

  • Lovett BJ, Nelson JM. Systematic Review: Educational Accommodations for Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Jul 31 2020.

What are the most common relationship issues when one partner has ADHD?

ADHD brings very consistent patterns to romantic relationships, particularly when it goes undiagnosed or under-managed. One of the most common, and most destructive, is what I call “parent/child dynamics.” In this pattern, the ADHD partner makes promises but has trouble following through on those promises for reasons that include: distraction; difficulty planning; trouble completing; trouble remembering to do the thing, and more.

infographic ADHD relationship issues

The ADHD partner is “consistently inconsistent,” which means the other partner cannot rely on him or her. Because the non-ADHD (or more organized other ADHD) partner never knows what will or won’t happen, s/he takes on more and more responsibility to compensate. Many adopt an ‘if I don’t do it, it won’t get done’ attitude. Unfortunately, the burden of taking on so much eventually leads to resentment and anger in the non-ADHD partner, particularly after children are added to the family. In response to the non-ADHD partner’s anger, the ADHD partner then also gets angry. It becomes a negatively reinforcing, downward spiral of interactions.

Other common relationship issues include: chore wars; having the non-ADHD partner who feels unloved because it’s so hard to get the ADHD partner’s attention; misinterpreting ADHD symptoms in a negative way; lying and cover ups of ADHD symptomatic behaviors; and difficulties with their sex life. The good news is that once partners better understand ADHD and learn how to deal with it, they can find the love they thought they had lost.

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About the Author

Melissa Orlov

Melissa Orlov is the founder of ADHDmarriage.com, and author of two award-winning books on the impact of ADHD in relationships, including The ADHD Effect on Marriage (rev. 2020). She is considered one of the foremost authorities on the topic of how ADHD impacts adult relationships.


References

How can people with ADHD eat healthier?

ADHD is associated with unhealthy dietary patterns, which may directly lead to excess weight gain. They consume less healthy foods (such as vegetables and fruits) and more unhealthy foods (fatty, sweet and processed foods). The health risks associated with an unbalanced diet have become the leading factor contributing to the global burden of disease. Hence, it is necessary to find intervention programs aimed to improve the eating patterns of individuals with ADHD. 

infographic eat healthy adhd

There is a discrepancy between the unhealthy eating behavior of individuals with ADHD and their food-related perceptions. They have the same benefit and risk food perceptions, as individuals without ADHD. Meaning they know what is dangerous and what is better to eat but their behavior does not match their knowledge. Therefore, it is important to focus on their environment. It has been found that environmental factors can influence food choices (emphasizing the attractiveness and convenience of the food). Moreover, individuals with ADHD are more influenced by advertising, compared to individuals without ADHD.

Healthy food advertisements raise their healthy food choices. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are their impulsivity and sensitivity to rewards.

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About the Author

Shirley Hershko

Shirley Hershko is the director of the diagnostic and support center, a senior teacher, and a researcher at the Hebrew University in Israel. Her study won an award at the World Congress on ADHD.


Further Reading

Why is it important to diagnose and treat ADHD in adulthood?

Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adulthood is important because many adults have lived with feelings of failure, anxiety, poor self-esteem, depression and other negative emotions for years, never understanding that there is a reason for the challenges they have faced.  For those adults who have always felt “off” or like they just didn’t fit in easily with others, discovering that they have ADHD can be life changing,  Imagine the relief that comes with knowing that there is a reason for all of the lost keys, missed meetings – and opportunities, emotional outbursts and failures at work, relationships and/or finances.  I should know since I experienced that ah-ha moment for myself as an adult!

infographic diagnose adhd adults

Once you KNOW you can seek answers, treatment and solutions.  Even if you have managed to be relatively successful and don’t feel the need to seek further treatment just knowing can make a positive difference.  I did not seek treatment immediately after my diagnosis at the age of 41. I was a busy single parent, raising two sons and successfully navigating my career.  I’d not only survived but thrived up until that point. But then came the fluctuating hormones of menopause and a new demanding job that required more paper pushing than interactions with people.  It was such a relief to realize right away that I could seek multiple treatment paths to help me get through this rough patch. Knowing there was a reason I was having such difficulty made all the difference.  So whether you’ve been successful all your life, or have struggled because of undiagnosed ADHD, just KNOWING can open up new possibilities and provide new paths to self-acceptance and inner peace. 

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Evelyn Polk Green

Evelyn Polk Green, MSEd, is a past president of both ADDA, the Attention Deficit Disorder Association, and CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). Evelyn is an adult with ADHD and the mother of two adult sons who also have ADHD. She has been active in ADHD and mental health advocacy for more than 25 years.

What is the difference in ADHD between males and females?

When male and female accounts of specific ADHD symptoms are studied, research has found that the symptoms they experience are more alike than different.  When you ask women and men about their lived experiences with ADHD, however, you are likely to find some striking differences. 

Gender differences in ADHD

Certain aspects of ADHD – such as rates of diagnosis and treatment, presentation or “type,” and rates of co-existing depression, anxiety, and behavioral disorders – seem to diverge along gender lines in ways similar to other psychiatric diagnoses. Although, again, the reasons behind these differences are layered and confusing. For instance, women and girls with ADHD tend to have a higher incidence of depression and anxiety. This could, in part, be due to a tendency of girls and women to exhibit internalizing behavior (anxiety, depression, people pleasing) while boys and men in general are more likely to display externalizing behaviors (hyperactivity, disruptive behaviors). There has yet to be an agreed upon reason for this difference in the ADHD community, with some trying to identify neurological reasons by looking at the increased rates of inattentive symptoms for females and hyperactive symptoms of males (nature) and others pointing to the complexities of socialization and gender-based behavioral expectations (nurture). (Yes, that same old debate is alive and well!)

Similarly, and likely for a variety of reasons, boys are diagnosed with ADHD two to three times as often as girls and they are more likely to be diagnosed early in life. Researchers are currently investigating whether there is a true difference in incidence of the condition between males and females, or whether differences in rates of diagnoses are due to other factors such as gender bias or variations in presentation of symptoms. Overall, however, women and girls are less likely to be properly diagnosed with ADHD, with boys and men being more likely than girls and women to be referred for services even when their symptom profiles are exactly the same. 

Further, a number of complex and nuanced factors influence the female experience of ADHD in ways that continue to lack robust research. One example is the impact of estrogen on dopamine, the brain chemical most prominently implicated in ADHD. Fluctuating estrogen levels can impact the intensity and presentation of ADHD symptoms. Women also continue to face gender-role expectations that do not always align favorably with the strengths and challenges of an ADHD brain. They also have higher rates of self-harming behaviors and lower self-esteem than men with ADHD. For all individuals regardless of gender-identity, it is likely that gendered expectations of behavior might complicate how symptoms are perceived.

While it is important to continue to consider the impact of sex differences on ADHD presentation and experience, it is also pivotal that we begin to question the role that gender-based biases and expectations might play in coloring our perception of the strengths and challenges inherent in this condition. To date, the field lacks meaningful research on the experiences of people with ADHD who do not identify as cis-gender.  We all need to be part of the collective story because the more diversity of representation in the research and literature, the more accurately we can diagnose and treat ADHD to help people live well with their differences, not simply in spite of them. 

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About the Author

Michelle Frank

Dr. Michelle Frank is a well-regarded specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD who aims to help her clients learn how to live successfully with ADHD – and without shame. Dr. Frank is the co-author of A Radical Guide for Women with ADHD: Embrace Neurodiversity, Love Boldly, and Break Through Barriers, written in collaboration with Sari Solden and published by New Harbinger.  Dr. Frank is committed to ADHD advocacy and awareness campaigns, speaking nationally on issues related to ADHD, women’s empowerment, and neurodiversity.


Further reading

  • Mowlem, F.D., Rosenqvist, M.A., Martin, J. et al. Sex differences in predicting ADHD clinical diagnosis and pharmacological treatment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28, 481–489 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1211-3
  • Hinshaw SP, Owens EB, Zalecki C, et al. Prospective follow-up of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into early adulthood: continuing impairment includes elevated risk for suicide attempts and self-injury. J
  • Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(6):1041-1051. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543865/ Quinn PO, Madhoo M. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in women and girls: uncovering this hidden diagnosis. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2014;16(3):PCC.13r01596. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4195638/

What does a comprehensive treatment plan for children with ADHD look like/include?

After diagnosis by a specialist, a comprehensive treatment plan should include a full explanation of the condition and the available treatments in understandable terms, together with an assessment of any other problems for learning and behavioural and emotional life that are associated with or complicate the ADHD. 

Infographic comprehensive treatement children ADHD

Interventions to be considered should include medication and/ or evidence-based psychological treatment such as cognitive-behavioural therapy; how to access them if recommended; potential benefits and harms; advice on education, exercise, and diet. There should be alternative plans if any one intervention is declined. There should be information on local and national support groups and voluntary organizations and on the right to a second opinion. 


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About the Author

Dr. Eric Taylor

Eric Taylor is Emeritus Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at King’s College London and the Maudsley Hospital. He retired after a lifetime of ADHD research, clinical practice and leading the department at the Institute of Psychiatry for over 15 years.

What is the relationship between ADHD and emotional regulation?

During the first 170+ years of its medical history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its precursor disorders were believed to involve deficits in emotional inhibition and self-regulation along with the core problems with attention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Yet, beginning in the 1960s, especially with the second edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-II: APA, 1968), the symptoms of emotional impulsiveness (EI) and deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) were divorced from the core deficits of ADHD, being treated as merely associated problems that may arise in some cases, if these problems were acknowledged at all. This led to most people, clinicians included, excluding emotional self-regulation from their understanding of and theories about the nature of ADHD.

Infographic emotional regulation

Emotional impulsiveness refers to the expression of provoked emotional reactions to events more quickly than is the case in typical people. Being impatient, having a low frustration tolerance, being easily excitable or emotionally aroused, expressing more forceful primary emotions when provoked, quickness to anger, and other impulsive emotional reactions illustrate this deficit in emotion regulation. DESR refers to the inability or difficulty with gaining control over strong emotions that have been provoked by events so as to inhibit their public expression, down regulate or reduce their severity, more quickly engage in efforts at self-calming, and even substitute more moderate emotional reactions that are more conducive to one’s immediate and longer term welfare.

Yet none of the above is to suggest that all of the emotional difficulties seen in a patient with ADHD can be written off to this emotional dysregulation component. ADHD is certainly associated with an elevated risk for various mood and anxiety disorders beyond just impulsive emotions.

What distinguishes affective disturbances of ADHD from comorbid affective disorder

First, consider that the emotional disturbances in ADHD are just that – emotions, and not moods. Emotions are short duration, provoked, and often situation specific to the setting of the provocation. They are also largely rational which is to say understandable to others given that typical people would have had the same subjective reaction to the provocation. But the difference is that the typical person would have acted to suppress the voluntary aspects of the emotion over which they have some volitional control rather than express it publicly. They would then have engaged in the self-regulatory steps to down-regulate or otherwise alter the emotion to make it more compatible with the situation, others, and the person’s longer-term goals and welfare. Recovery from such a provoked change in emotional state can be relatively quick compared to moods, though perhaps not as easily as is seen in typical people given that those with ADHD have more difficulties down-regulating strong emotions using executive self-control.

In contrast, a mood is just that – a long duration change in emotional state that is often cross-situational and may arise without provocation or from trivial events that would often not have led others to react in this fashion. It can be described as capricious as well as extreme. Consequently, it is not rational in the sense that other people would have the same emotional state under these circumstances over such an extended period of time and across settings. Admittedly, the dividing line between an emotion and mood is not as crisp as is portrayed here. But the above guidelines seem sensible at this time to guide clinicians in sorting out what affective symptoms of a patient with ADHD belong to that disorder and its EI-DESR problems and what symptoms are likely to be attributable to a comorbid disorder.

Compelling evidence has arisen over the past decade that clearly shows that many if not most cases of ADHD involve problems with EI and DESR. It also shows that these problems are correlated with the severity of more traditional ADHD symptoms, and that they share the same genetic influences that are well-documented in research on ADHD. The abundant evidence argues for the return of EI-DESR to the status of a key associated feature if not a core component of ADHD in its conceptualization and diagnostic criteria.

The argument is based on various lines of reasoning and evidence:

  1. EI-DESR has a long history of being a central feature of ADHD in its clinical conceptualization well before the 1960s.
  2. Current neuropsychological theories of ADHD consider EI-DESR to be just such a central component.
  3. The neuroanatomical findings associated with ADHD would have to give rise to symptoms of EI-DESR because the brain structures and networks involved in ADHD are also involved in emotion generation, expression, and self-regulation.
  4. Ample evidence now exists that children and adults with ADHD are highly likely to manifest EI-DESR (low frustration tolerance, impatience, quickness to anger, and being easily excited to emotional reactions more generally).
  5. Returning EI-DESR to a central place in ADHD would more clearly show the basis for its high comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder and probably several related disorders, such as future risk for anxiety and depression.
  6. Promoting EI-DESR as a core component of ADHD would also clarify one basis for the frequent social interaction problems and impairments in several other domains of major life activities (work, driving, marriage/cohabiting, managing finances, and parenting) seen in ADHD.
  7. Understanding the role of EI/DESR in ADHD would greatly assist with differential diagnosis of ADHD from mood disorders and reduce misdiagnosing emotional problems in ADHD as entirely arising from comorbidity.
  8. ADHD medications appear to reduce the EI/DESR evident in ADHD as much as they do the traditional ADHD symptom dimensions, yet each may do so through different neural mechanisms and networks.
  9. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD should include programs targeted at helping patients with EI/DESR specifically rather than just traditional ADHD symptom dimensions.
  10. Doing so is likely to reduce the various impairments that are specifically associated with the emotional component of ADHD that are largely going unaddressed in current therapies.

Regardless of what the next DSM may do, clinicians need to be aware of the EI-DESR symptoms inherent in ADHD and evaluate them as much as they evaluate the traditional ADHD symptoms during their initial assessment of a patient for ADHD. Doing so can provide not just a clearer and more comprehensive account of the patient’s current status, but also a richer understanding of the basis for many of the impairments the patient may be experiencing that are partly or largely a consequence of this emotional component of ADHD. That ADHD includes such a component likewise needs to be explained by clinicians to their ADHD patients and families so they, too, gain such a better, more complete understanding of the condition and why the patient may emote as they do. Interventions also need to be targeted at this component of ADHD besides the ongoing efforts to develop both psychosocial and medical interventions that focus on the traditional symptom complex of ADHD and its related “cold” cognitive executive deficits. Treatment should also focus on how best to help family members cope with and assist the patient with ADHD in the effective management of their emotional dysregulation.

In sum

It is time to return EI-DESR to its rightful place in the core or central components of ADHD and to investigate better ways to treat or manage it if the well-being of those with ADHD is to be improved.

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About the Author

russell barkley

Dr. Barkley is a Clinical professor of Psychiatry at the Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center in Richmond, Virginia, USA.  He has published more than 27 books, rating scales, and clinical manuals and more than 300 scientific papers and book chapters on ADHD, and has presented more than 800 invited lectures in more than 30 countries.  His latest books are Taking Charge of ADHD: The Complete, Authoritative Guide for Parents (4th ed., June 2020, Guilford press) and The 12 Principles for Raising and Child with ADHD (October 2020, Guilford Press).  His website is www.RussellBarkley.org.

Supportive Scientific References

  • Barkley, R. A. (2015).  Emotional dysregulation is a core component of ADHD. In R. A. Barkley (ed.). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (4th ed.) (pp. 81-115). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Barkley, R. A. & Fischer, M.  (2010). The unique contribution of emotional impulsiveness to impairment in major life activities in hyperactive children as adults.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 503-513.
  • Barkley, R. A. & Murphy, K. R. (2011).  Deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with ADHD: The relative contributions of emotional impulsiveness and ADHD symptoms to adaptive impairments in major life activities.  Journal of ADHD and Related Disorders, 1(4), 5-28.
  • Braaten, E. B., & Rosen, L. A. (2000).  Self-regulation of affect in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD bys: differences in empathic responding.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 315-321.
  • Ciuluvica, C., Mitrofan, N., & Grilli, A. (2013).  Aspects of emotion regulation difficulties and cognitive deficit in executive functions related to ADHD symptomatology in children.  Social and Behavioral Sciences, 78,  390-394.
  • Dowson, J. H., & Blackwell, A. D. (2010).  Impulsive aggression in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinnavica, 121, 103-110.
  • Harty, S. C., Miller, C. J., Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (2009).  Adolescents with childhood ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders: Aggression, anger, and hostility.  Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 85-97.
  • Hinshaw, S. P. (2003).  Impulsivity, emotion regulation, and developmental psychopathology: specific versus generality of linkages.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1008, 149-159.
  • Hulvershorn, L., Mennes, M., Castellanos, F. X., Martino, A.D., Milham, A. P., Hummer, T. A., Roy, A. K. (2013).  Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.  Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(3), 351-361.
  • Jensen, S. A., & Rosén, L. A. (2004). Emotional reactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8, 53-61.
  • Maedgen, J. W., & Carlson, C. L. (2000).  Social functioning and emotional regulation in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes.  Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 30-42.
  • Martel, M. M. (2009).  Research review: A new perspective on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: emotion dysregulation and trait models.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1042-1051.
  • Melnick, S. M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2000). Emotion regulation and parenting in AD/HD and comparison boys: linkages with social behaviors and peer preference.  Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 73-86.
  • Merwood, A., Chen, W., Rijsdijk, F., Skirrow, C., Larsson, H., Thapar, A., Kuntsi, J., & Asherson, P. (2013).  Genetic association between the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and emotional lability in child and adolescent twins.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(2), 209-220.
  • Musser, E. D., Backs, R. W., Schmidtt, C. F., Ablow, J. C., Measelle, J. R., & Nigg, J. T. (2011).  Emotion regulation via the autonomic nervous system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 841-852.
  • Ryckaert, C., Kuntsi, J., & Asherson, P. (2018).  Emotional dysregulation and ADHD.  In Banaschewski, T., Coghill, D., & Zuddas, A. (Eds.).  Oxford Textbook of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (pp. 103-117).  London: Oxford University Press.
  • Shaw, P., Stringaris, A., Nigg, J., & Leibenluft, E. (2014).  Emotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 171 (3), 276-293.
  • Sobanski, E., Banaschewski, T., Asherson, P., Buitelaar, J., Che, W., Franke, B., Holtman, M. et al. (2010).  Emotional lability in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): clinical correlates and familial prevalence.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 915-923.
  • Surman, C. B. H., Biederman, J., Spencer, T., Miller, C. A., McDermott, K. M., & Faraone, S. V. (2013).  Understanding deficient emotional self-regulation in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A controlled study.  ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 5, 273-281.
  • Walcott, C. M., & Landau, S. (2004).  The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 772-782.